segunda-feira, 26 de dezembro de 2016

Medication errors: Cut your risk with these tips

mayoclinic.org

 

Medication errors are preventable. Your best defense is asking questions and being informed about the medications you take.

By Mayo Clinic Staff

Medication errors may sound harmless, but mistakes in prescribing, dispensing and administering medications injure hundreds of thousands of people a year in the United States. Yet most medication errors can be prevented. How can you protect yourself and your family?

One of the best ways to reduce your risk of being harmed by medication errors is to take an active role in your own health care. Learn about the medications you take — including possible side effects. Never hesitate to ask questions or share concerns with your doctor, pharmacist and other health care providers.

Just what are medication errors?

Medication errors are preventable events that lead to medications being used inappropriately. Medication errors that cause harm are called adverse drug events.

An example of a medication error is taking over-the-counter products that contain acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) when you're already taking a prescription pain medicine that contains acetaminophen, possibly exceeding the recommended acetaminophen dose and putting yourself at risk of liver damage.

Another example of a possible error is taking the brand-name drugs Zyban and Wellbutrin at the same time. Both contain the drug bupropion, but each medication is intended to treat two separate conditions.

Zyban is used for smoking cessation, and Wellbutrin is used to treat depression. If you're taking Wellbutrin for depression, then decide to quit smoking, you may mistakenly be prescribed both drugs. Taking both brand names together may lead to an overdose of bupropion.

How do medication errors happen?

Medication errors can happen anywhere, including your own home and in doctors' offices, hospitals, pharmacies and senior living facilities. Knowing what you're up against can help you play it safe. The most common causes of medication errors are:

  • Poor communication between health care providers
  • Poor communication between providers and their patients
  • Sound-alike medication names and medical abbreviations
Communication is key to preventing medication errors

Knowledge is your best defense. If you don't understand something your doctor says, ask for an explanation. Whenever you start a new medication, make sure you know the answers to the following:

  • What is the brand or generic name of the medication?
  • What is it supposed to do? How long will it be until I see results?
  • What is the dose? How long should I take it?
  • Are there any foods, drinks, other medications or activities I should avoid while taking this medicine?
  • What are the possible side effects? What should I do if they occur?
  • What should I do if I miss a dose?
  • What should I do if I accidentally take more than the recommended dose?
  • Will this new medication interfere with my other medication(s) and how?
References
  1. Medication safety basics. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/MedicationSafety/basics.html. Accessed June 23, 2014.
  2. 20 tips to help prevent medical errors. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. http://www.ahrq.gov/patients-consumers/care-planning/errors/20tips/index.html. Accessed June 23, 2014.
  3. FDA 101: Medication errors. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm048644.htm. Accessed June 23, 2014.
  4. Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2014: 5 Books in 1. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2014. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed June 23, 2014.
  5. Your medicine: Be smart, be safe. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. http://www.ahrq.gov/consumer/safemeds/yourmeds.htm. Accessed June 23, 2014.
  6. Lessons to be learned from past errors. Institute for Safe Medication Practices. http://www.ismp.org/consumers/lessonslearned.asp. Accessed June 23, 2014.
  7. FDA 101: How to use the consumer complaint system and MedWatch. http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm049087.htm. Accessed June 23, 2014.
  8. Hughes RG. Patient safety and quality: An evidence-based handbook for nurses. Rockville, Md.: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2008. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2648/. Accessed June 26, 2014.

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